This set of paintings is one of the most famous in the whole history of European art.
Created in northern Italy by the artist Andrea Mantegna for the Gonzaga family, the paintings were purchased by King Charles I and brought to England in 1630.
They show an imaginary triumphal procession arriving in ancient Rome, complete with captured jewels, women and elephants.
Mantegna made a special study of ancient architecture and sculpture to make his scenes as realistic as possible.
Considered to be some of the most important Italian Renaissance paintings in the world, The Triumphs of Caesar were described as ‘the best thing Mantegna ever painted’ by Giorgio Vasari in the 16th century, and their status as masterpieces has remained unchallenged ever since.
The series of nine paintings, probably commissioned by Francesco Gonzaga in about 1485, depict Julius Caesar on a triumphal chariot returning from his successful campaigns, in a procession of Roman soldiers, standard-bearers, musicians and the spoils of war including an assortment of booty (including arms, intricate sculpture and gold vases), exotic animals and captives.
Mantegna found inspiration for the scenes he created in written accounts of Caesar’s celebratory processions through Rome as well as surviving Roman antiquities.
The canvases were acquired by Charles I in 1629 when his agent Daniel Nys travelled to Italy and purchased works of art, including paintings by Titian, Raphael and Caravaggio as well as The Triumphs of Caesar. Soon after their addition to the Royal Collection they were brought to Hampton Court Palace, which has remained their permanent home ever since.