Queen Victoria

From pampered princess to elderly empress: wife, mother and queen

From pampered princess to elderly empress: wife, mother and queen

When the future Queen Victoria was born at Kensington Palace in 1819, she was fifth in line to the throne. However, by the time she was 18, a quick succession of deaths among her relatives accelerated her to accession. She accepted the crown as an inexperienced teenager; when she died, aged 81, she was known as ‘the Grandmother of Europe’.

Although her marriage to her cousin Prince Albert had been ‘arranged’, it was a successful and passionate match, producing nine children and ultimately 42 grandchildren, who married into royal families all over Europe.

Victoria died in 1901 as Queen of Great Britain and Empress of India, although we view the legacy of empire more critically today. The image of Victoria as a stout elderly lady in black mourning endures, despite the complex, multi-faceted nature of the Victorian era and the Queen herself.

Queen Victoria depicted as she was at her coronation (detail) by Sir George Hayter, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2018

Did you know?

Victoria reigned for 63 years, seven months and two days, a reign only surpassed by her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II on 9 September 2015.

Princess Victoria as a baby.

Birth of Princess Victoria

Victoria was born on 24 May 1819 in the dining room at Kensington Palace. It seems a strange choice, but here hot water could be brought up more easily from the kitchens.

At the time of her birth, Victoria’s uncle, the Prince of Wales, was acting as Regent in the final phase of his father's mental illness. The Prince succeeded George III to the throne as George IV in 1820.

Princess, later Queen Victoria (detail) by Johann Georg Paul Fischer, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2018

Victoria's route to the throne

By 1818/19, a succession crisis was looming. In 1817, George IV’s only daughter Princess Charlotte had died giving birth to a stillborn son, wiping out two generations of heirs to the throne in one tragic blow. This prompted a desperate ‘baby race’ among the King’s unmarried brothers to produce a legitimate heir.

Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III, hastily married a German widow, Marie Luise Victoire, Dowager Duchess of Leiningen. She had two children from her previous marriage, one of whom was Princess Feodore, who became Victoria’s much-loved stepsister. William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV) abandoned his long-term mistress to marry Princess Adelaide of Denmark. 

The Duke of Kent and his pregnant Duchess rushed back to England, where their daughter was born at Kensington Palace. Their baby daughter, christened Alexandrina Victoria at the palace, took her place as a potential heir to the throne, after her uncle William IV, any of his surviving children, and her own father.

Did you know?

Victoria’s parents considered naming her Elizabeth, Georgina or Charlotte but her uncle George IV had the final say and chose Alexandrina. Victoria was added as an afterthought.

Portrait of Queen Victoria as a toddler with her mother, Victoria, Duchess of Kent.

Baby Victoria

The new princess was a strong, healthy baby, described as ‘plump as a partridge’. Unusually for the time, she was delivered by a female doctor, Charlotte Heidenreich von Siebold. This same doctor also delivered Victoria’s first cousin, later husband, Prince Albert.

For her first few months, Victoria was surrounded with love and luxury. The sudden death of her father in January 1820, when Victoria was only 8 months old, and the mass of debt he left behind, changed everything.
Her mother found herself in difficult circumstances.

Her late husband’s equerry, Sir John Conroy, claimed he had been asked by the Duke to take care of the Duchess and became more prominent in the lives of the Duchess and Victoria.

Victoria, Duchess of Kent with Princess Victoria in 1821 by Sir William Beechey, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2018

Painting of Queen Victoria as a girl in a pastoral setting.

Victoria's early education

From age four, her mother employed the Reverend George Davys, a patient and mild man, who tutored the spirited young princess until she took the throne. She had a singing teacher, Luiga Lablache, an opera singer. The Princess showed a talent for art and was given drawing lessons by Richard Westall, best known for his portraits of Lord Byron.

Victoria later claimed she felt lonely and oppressed during her Kensington Palace childhood, despite the companionship of her beloved governess, Baronness Lehzen. Together they made costumes for Victoria’s collection of dolls, and Victoria wrote stories. Her other great friend and ally was her little dog, Dash. Sometimes she would dress him up in a pair of little trousers.

Queen Victoria when a girl, 1830, by Richard Westall, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

The Kensington 'System'

From an early age, Victoria was subject to a strict regime that was intended to shape her into a future queen.

The Duchess of Kent, whose English was poor, depended more and more on the help of her late husband’s equerry.

John Conroy was ambitious and controlling and saw an opportunity to grow his influence in the royal household. If Victoria inherited the throne before she was 18, the Duchess would be made Regent. His plan was to bring the Duchess, and Victoria under his control.

He instigated a strict set of rules intended to bolster up the power and position of Victoria’s mother, who was unpopular within the wider Royal family. These rules became known as the Kensington ‘System’.

They meant that Victoria grew up relatively isolated at Kensington Palace, although she was constantly supervised, not even able to walk downstairs without holding someone’s hand in case she fell.

The ‘System’, as it was called, sounds rather cruel. Victoria came to loath Conroy and his attempt to control her.

However, the system worked in her favour.

Because she was rarely at court, Victoria wasn’t associated with her predecessors – her unpopular uncles George IV and William IV.

Victoria's unhappy childhood

While Victoria herself described her childhood as lonely and unhappy, research by Historic Royal Palaces’ curators suggests that in later life, Victoria ‘misremembered’ her childhood as more miserable than it was.

There is evidence her mother doted on her; Victoria enjoyed outings to the seaside, the theatre and her beloved ballet, in truth becoming a bit spoilt and wilful. Victoria herself admitted that she had been spoiled and ‘very much indulged by everyone’.

Did you know?

It’s estimated that Victoria wrote over 60 million words, mainly in her diaries, during her long life.

Queen Victoria as a princess with dash.

'The Nation's Hope'

The young princess sometimes went on tours around the country.

She recorded many impressions over these tours in her journals, and one of her earliest trips around Wales shocked her.

‘The country is very desolate…everywhere smoking and burning coal heaps, intermingled with wretched huts and carts and little ragged children.’

When her uncle the king finally seemed to be at death’s door, her supporters were delighted by the prospect of having a new start for the monarchy.

She was presented as ‘The Nation’s Hope’.

'Victoria was beginning to emerge from the ‘System’ just as Conroy - to give him credi­t - had intended.' -Lucy Worsley, Co-Chief Curator, Historic Royal Palaces.

Queen Victoria when Princess. At her feet is a spaniel, probably Dash, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Victoria becomes queen

At 6am on 20 June 1837, Victoria was woken at Kensington Palace to be told visitors had arrived with important news, which she later described in her diary:

‘I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing-gown), and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham (the Lord Chamberlain) then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes p.2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen.’

Did you know?

One of Victoria’s first acts as queen was to have her bed removed from the bedroom she had shared with her mother.

First public appearance as queen

Victoria dressed that day in a black mourning dress, in honour of her uncle. Desperate to break free of her mother and Conroy, the 18-year old calmly chose to make her first public appearance as queen without them.

Despite being physically tiny (5ft 1in), her confident manner made a great impression on the men gathered at the Accession Council meeting in the palace’s Red Saloon. As the Duke of Wellington described, ‘she not only filled her chair, she filled the room.’

Did you know?

Some 222 councillors, Cabinet ministers and officials arrived at Kensington Palace and crowded into the Red Saloon for their first meeting with the new queen.

Victoria's coronation

Victoria was crowned on 28 June 1838. Huge numbers of people had flocked to London so the streets thronged with spectators, all eager to catch a glimpse of the young queen.

Although anxious at first, when Victoria looked out at of her carriage at all the people cheering her nerves faded. ‘How proud I felt to be Queen of such a nation’, she later recorded in her diary.

Did you know?

Victoria’s coronation suffered a few mishaps; the coronation ring was forced onto the wrong finger, an elderly peer fell down some steps and a bishop wrongly declared the end of the ceremony.

Queen Victoria in her coronation robes

The young Queen

In her first year as monarch, Victoria scarcely put a foot wrong. Her youth meant her new reign was regarded indulgently as people looked forward to a fresh new era. However, her girlish appearance meant that she would be consistently underestimated.

In her own words, she was determined to do a good job. ‘I shall do my utmost to do fulfil my duty towards my country’ she wrote in her diaries. ‘I am very young and perhaps in many, although not all, inexperienced, but I am sure that very few have more real good will and more real desire to do what is fit and right than I have.

Despite her good intentions, the young Queen relied too heavily on some key ministers, principally Lord Melbourne, and made some unfortunate mistakes in the second year of her reign.

State portrait of Queen Victoria by Sir George Hayter, c1838-40, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Drawing of a young Prince Albert

Prince Albert and the proposal

Victoria had first met her German cousin Prince Albert in 1836, when he and his brother Ernest visited Kensington Palace with their Uncle Leopold, King of the Belgians. Their families had planned a union almost from birth, and when the couple met again in 1839 Victoria decided that she was ready to marry this handsome young prince; partly to get help with her royal duties, partly to win public approval, but also for love.

As protocol demanded, Victoria proposed on 15 October 1839. When Albert accepted, the couple embraced and the Queen was overcome with joy. ‘Oh how I adore and love him, I cannot say!’ she wrote in her diary.

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 1836, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Detail of a portrait of Queen Victoria, in her wedding dress with a flower crown and veil.

Victoria weds Albert

Victoria’s wedding in 1840 to Albert was very public. It was the first royal marriage ceremony to be arranged with the enjoyment of the London public in mind. She travelled to the Chapel Royal at St James’s Palace in an open carriage so that everyone could see her.

To show that she was a woman as well as a queen, Victoria wore a simple white dress instead of royal robes, a style followed by many brides ever since.

Victoria’s wedding – the white dress, the carriage ride through the streets, the very public nature of it – set the pattern for every subsequent marriage ceremony in the main line of descent within the royal family.

Queen Victoria depicted in her wedding dress and veil with orange blossom wreath. She wears the brooch made for her by Prince Albert, and earrings and necklace of Turkish diamonds. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019 

Married life

Albert was no different from many men of his age, who assumed that a man would take the dominant role in a marriage. Wider attitudes were changing as to what made a successful marriage: a writer at the time counselled her female readers that a happy relationship was founded on one important truth ‘the superiority of your husband as a man’.

The Queen’s first pregnancy in 1840 helped ease the situation. When she was not feeling well enough Albert read her daily Government despatches to her. As her pregnancy progressed they placed their desks side-by-side at Buckingham Palace so they could work together. Gradually Albert assumed more control, becoming, in effect, Victoria’s Private Secretary.

Did you know?

By 1845, Albert was advising the Queen to such an extent that the diarist Charles Greville wrote ‘They are one person. And He likes and She dislikes business.’

Painting of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert with their daughter, Victoria, Princess Royal, in the White Drawing Room at Windsor Castle.

Victoria and Albert's children

Victoria and Albert were delighted by the arrival of Princess Victoria - ‘Vicky’ - born in 1840.  

Athough Victoria wrote that she found pregnancy difficult, a large family was her ambition.  Vicky was followed by Albert Edward (later Edward VII) in 1841, then Alice (1843), Alfred (1844), Helena (1846), Louise (1848), Arthur (1850), Leopold (1853) and Beatrice (1857).

Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and Victoria, Princess Royal 1841-43, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

The royal parents

Victoria and Albert shared an interest in raising and educating their nine children, and presented a happy family image to the world. Unlike many aristocratic fathers of the period, Albert enjoyed playing with his children and spent a lot of time with them. ‘ He is so kind to them,’ Victoria wrote, ‘& romps with them delightfully.'

Holidays and birthdays were marked with great excitement, with scenes of joyful domestic Christmases, masterminded by Albert, appearing in the new illustrated newspapers to great public delight.

Did you know?

Victoria had marble sculptures made of her children’s hands and feet, from plaster casts taken while they were asleep.

Photograph showing a full length portrait of Queen Victoria (1819-1901) and Prince Albert (1819-61), photographed at Buckingham Palace. Queen Victoria stands in right side profile and wears court dress. Prince Albert stands in left side profile, holding a feathered hat in his left hand and wears a uniform. There is a pedestal between them, with flowers upon it.

Albert takes charge

Victoria could see that her subjects would approve if she devoted herself to her children and let Albert take over some of her royal duties.

He was determined to carve out a uniquely powerful role as Prince Consort, taking charge of many of his wife’s royal duties.

Albert became obsessed that Baroness Lehzen was influencing his wife, so persuaded Victoria to ‘retire’ her old governess back to Germany.

Without Lehzen, and her dear friend former Prime Minister Melbourne (who died in 1842), the Queen became totally dependent on Albert.

Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in court dress, 1893 (copy of an image from 1854), Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2018

Queen Victoria's world

Victoria and Albert’s family grew up against a backdrop of a world marked by radical and unprecedented change. Her reign ushered in an era of huge advances in technology and legendary feats of construction.

It was an age of innovation. Fabulous construction such as the Clifton Suspension Bridge, the world’s first, was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel and completed in 1864.

London was the first city to open a steam-powered single line multi-station underground railway in 1863, designed by John Fowles.

Britain was a bustling, commercial, prosperous place, although with a shocking dark underworld of poverty, pollution and slums. 

Despite a punitive system of punishment and harsh poverty laws, murder, rape, prostitution, theft, widespread begging and terrorism, were all part and parcel of Britain’s frenetic development in the 19th century. 

Victoria herself was deeply socially conservative and thought that people should stay in the social classes into which they were born.

She once said that the idea of giving women the vote was a ‘mad and wicked folly’. 

'Blackman Street, London', 1885 by John Atkinson Grimshaw, © Alamy Stock Photo

A watercolour depicting the royal party on the dais under the baldacchino, at the crossing of the Crystal Palace

The Great Exhibition

At the other end of the scale from the tough lives of working people was the celebration of technological innovation and the expansion of trade and British interests.  

Prince Albert was a highly intelligent man, with a social conscience, interested in trade, industry, art and science.

In 1851 he organised the massively successful Great Exhibition, with over 100,000 exhibits from all over world, including the famous Koh-i-Nûr diamond. 

The opening of the Great Exhibition in 1851, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

A show of industry and culture

Victoria was so fascinated by her husband’s achievement that she visited the exhibition nearly every day for three months. Entrance tickets were cannily varied in price and ranged from a top price season ticket of 3 guineas ‘for gentlemen’ – equivalent to more than £2,000 today – down to a day ticket priced at one shilling.

For her, as for millions of her subjects who would never travel abroad, it was an opportunity to explore the whole world in a day. By the time the exhibition closed, it had attracted over 6 million visitors. 

Did you know?

Albert chose a bright pink dress for Victoria to wear to the exhibition opening so that she would stand out against the crowds.

Photograph of a half length portrait of Prince Albert, seated in a chair, facing towards the camera. He poses with his right hand in his lap.

Death of Prince Albert

Sadly for Victoria, the person she depended on for strength and support would soon leave her. In 1861 Victoria two suffered great losses, that shocked her to the core.

First, her mother died in March, but worse was to come. Later that year, her beloved Albert fell ill and died on 14 December 1861, aged only 42. Victoria was devastated. 

She wrote to her uncle Leopold: 'The poor fatherless baby of eight months is now the utterly broken-hearted and crushed widow of forty-two! My life as a happy one is ended! the world is gone for me!'

Just three weeks after Albert's death in 1861, Victoria held a Privy Council meeting. She was so grief-stricken she could not utter a word.

Photograph of Prince Albert (detail), taken months before his death. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Victoria in mourning

Victoria plunged into a deep grief, from which she never totally recovered, and wore black for the rest of her life. Her sharp withdrawal from public life lasted for over ten years, and was disastrous for her public image.

Albert’s death left Victoria very lonely. She insisted on her children spending a lot of time with her, and she almost obsessively kept the memory of their father alive.

Did you know?

The Queen wore more restrained jewellery after Prince Albert's death. Jet black accessories complemented her usual mourning attire.

Group photograph, taken at Windsor, after the wedding of the Prince of Wales, April 1863, gathered around a bust of the Prince Consort. From left to right, standing: Alexandra, Princess of Wales; the Prince of Wales; Princess Helena; Prince Louis of Hesse. Seated: Princess Louise; Queen Victoria; Princess Beatrice; Prince Leopold; and Alice, Princess Louis of Hesse in ornate cloak and bonnet.

A grieving family

For this wedding photograph celebrating the marriage of The Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra of Denmark in 1863, the Queen insisted the group was posed around a bust of her beloved Albert.

Family portrait with bust of Prince Albert, 1863, John Jabez Edwin Mayall, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

The Widow of Windsor

The Queen’s withdrawal from public life into seclusion caused wider problems. People began to assume that she was incapable of doing her job. In the years following Albert’s death, it seemed that she had become paralysed with grief.

Victoria lost the confidence to appear in public, retreating behind the walls of Windsor Castle to the disappointment, and the increasing disrespect, of her subjects. There were even calls for the abolition of the monarchy. However, two men helped her recover in the years that followed. 

Did you know?

Victoria was so badly affected by Albert’s death that her doctors feared she was seriously mentally ill, and her self-imposed seclusion was described as ‘evidence of insanity’.

Painting depicting Queen Victoria is in deep mourning, reading a letter. She is seated on her pony, Flora, which is held by John Brown. Behind is the terrace at Osborne. The clock stands at 3 pm. On the ground lie the Queen’s gloves and letters and she is accompanied by two dogs, a Border collie (probably Sharp) and a Skye terrier called Prince. The box which had contained the letters is also on the ground. Princess Louise and Princess Helena are sitting in the background with a terrier.

John Brown

Victoria became close to her plain speaking ‘Highland servant’, John Brown, after Albert’s death in 1861. She described his constant presence as ‘a real comfort’.

Brown treated her kindly but firmly, as a woman rather than a monarch and slowly he helped her recover from her intense grief. His influence with the Queen made him highly unpopular within the royal household, which Victoria ignored. 

Queen Victoria with John Brown at Osborne, 1865-67, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Portrait of Abdul Karim

Abdul Karim

In 1887, Victoria again angered the court by making a close favourite of her personal servant from India, Abdul Karim. As with John Brown, Karim attracted jealousy and prejudice, particularly because of his ‘low’ social background.

But Victoria did not listen to what people said, and went on in her own way.

Abdul Karim’s job as ‘Munshie’ (teacher) was to teach her the language of Urdu, in which she became fluent, and her notes from her lessons still survive.

Queen Victoria with Mohammed Abdul Karim at Balmoral, c1890, Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Victoria and empire

In the latter part of her life, the Queen became particularly involved in promoting the expansion of the Empire, until by the end of the reign it covered more than one-fifth of the world’s land mass, including the whole of the Indian subcontinent, large parts of Africa, and colonies in the Caribbean. 

However, the British Empire’s gain represented a terrible loss for other nations and peoples, and towards the end of Victoria’s reign, her empire was almost constantly at war.

Did you know?

Between 1815 and 1914, around 10 million square miles and 400 million people were added to the British Empire, until nearly one in four people on earth were under colonial rule.

Painting where Queen Victoria is shown in full-length, standing, in profile to the left, her head turned three-quarters to the left, on a dais with a throne chair behind. In the background is a balustrade with a glimpse of trees beyond. The train of her black satin dress is lined with ermine and her long veil is held in position by a small diamond crown. The Queen wears the ribbon and star of the Garter with the badges of the Order of Victoria and Albert and the Crown of India.

Empress of India

Victoria was crowned Empress of India on 1 May 1876, although her involvement had begun years before then.

By the 1840s she was appalled by the behaviour of the East India Company, who ran the British territories in India.

In 1856 she wrote, ‘I always feel sorry for those poor deposed Indian Princes.’

Although she was fascinated by all things Indian, she never visited the country, which is perhaps why she found it possible to shut her eyes to some unpalatable facts. 

She was, for example, happy to wear the Koh-i-Nûr diamond, seized by the British in 1842 during the Anglo-Sikh Wars. 

State portrait of Queen Victoria in 1885. She wears the ribbon and star of the Garter with the badges of the Order of Victoria and Albert and the Crown of India. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Photography of Queen Victoria smiling

Victoria's Diamond Jubilee

The Queen’s splendid Gold Jubilee in 1887, and even more magnificent Diamond Jubilee in 1897 helped restore her popularity after her retreat from public view following Albert’s death. The excitement around the celebrations in 1887 brought renewed vigour to her image but she couldn’t forget her private grief, writing, ‘The day has come, and I am alone’.

By 1897 she was more confident of the people’s affection for herself and for the monarchy; she was seen as the nation’s ‘grandmother’. Victoria sent a telegraph message to the world thanking her subjects for their loyalty: ‘From my heart I thank my beloved people. May God bless them!’ She received thousands of congratulatory messages from all over the world.

Rare photograph of Queen Victoria smiling, 1887, © Chronicle / Alamy Stock Photo 

Half-length seated portrait of Queen Victoria.

The Queen wears a white veil and crown and a bracelet with a portrait of Prince Albert

Death of Queen Victoria

By 1901, Victoria had grown very frail and had to use a wheelchair. She was losing weight, she ‘had lost so much flesh and had shrunk so as to appear about one half the person she had been’

Although nearly blind, she continued to write in her diary. The last entry was dated 13 January 1901, before her strength began to leave her. 

As her life ebbed, her first grandson, Wilhelm II, King of Prussia, (‘Kaiser Bill’), rushed from Germany to be by her side.  She died in his arms, on 22 January at Osborne House, Isle of Wight.

Her surviving dresses from this period reveal adaptations to accommodate an osteoarthritic hump on her upper back.

Portrait of Queen Victoria, commissioned for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897. The Queen wears a white veil and crown and a bracelet with a portrait of Prince Albert. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

The Queen's last wishes

The Queen’s body was brought back to London and crowds lined the streets as her funeral cortege passed on its way to her final resting place, St George’s Chapel, Windsor.

Victoria had asked for certain items to be placed beside her in her coffin, including rings, lockets, casts of the children’s hands and Albert’s dressing gown.  

Did you know?

She also asked her trusted royal doctor to hide a photograph of John Brown and a lock of his hair in her left hand.

Photograph of the funeral of Queen Victoria with the Royal mourners following the Queen's coffin through The High Street in Windsor on the way to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. In the centre is King Edward VII (1841-1910). On his left is Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and on the right of the King is Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. Sailors escort the coffin and other dignitaries walk in the background. Mourners and lines of policemen flank the sides of the High Street.

Victoria's funeral

The Queen had wanted her funeral done ‘ with respect but simply’. Here, royal mourners follow the Queen's coffin on its gun carriage (with wheels muffled as she had requested) through the High Street on the way to St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.

King Edward VII walked in the centre behind her coffin. On his left is Victoria’s third son Prince Arthur and on the right of the King is Kaiser Wilhelm II.

Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019

Queen Victoria's legacy

Victoria never believed that she was the best person for the job of queen, like many of her contemporaries she thought that men made the best monarchs, but she brought tenacity and a certain eccentricity to the task.

Victoria was a skilled politician who presented herself as a devoted wife, doting mother, and grieving widow, which made her home-loving Victorian subjects love her. 

By the time of her Diamond Jubilee, in 1897, no one could doubt that a woman was capable of reigning.

Her continued presence during such a period of intense period of technological, economic and social change had helped place the monarchy at the centre of the nation’s identity.

It’s thanks to Queen Victoria that we can enjoy visiting her birthplace of Kensington Palace, which she opened to the public in 1899.  The rooms that she grew up in provide a fascinating glimpse into her former life. 

The statue of her, created by her daughter Princess Louise and unveiled in 1893, still stands outside the palace today. 

Victoria had already opened Hampton Court, a palace in which she never lived, to visitors in 1839.

Many Victorians admired their queen’s reign for its stable government at home, and enormous expansion abroad.  Since then, her descendants, and the descendants of her subjects, have been left with a feeling that Victoria’s reign was a time when Britain was truly great. 

But historians today are much quicker to count the cost of that ‘greatness’, particularly to the non-British subjects of the Empire. 

Queen Victoria's diamond and emerald diadem, © Historic Royal Palaces/SWNS

Photograph of Queen Victoria and family at Coburg on 21 April 1894, assembled for the wedding of Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1876-1936) and Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse (1868-1937), both grandchildren of Queen Victoria.

Grandmother of Europe

Victoria had also hoped, through the marriages of her children into the other royal families of Europe, to create a network of alliances that would keep Europe peaceful.

Between them, her children gave her 42 grandchildren, and by the turn of the 20th century, her grandchildren were on the thrones of Denmark, Greece, Norway, Germany, Romania, Russia and Spain.

This was a strategy doomed to failure, and it was Victoria’s own grandson, Kaiser Wilhelm II, who led Germany into war against Britain in 1914.

Queen Victoria and family at Coburg on 21 April 1894. Sitting with the Queen in the second row is Kaiser Wilhelm II (left). Tsar Nicholas of Russia stands immediately above him with Tsarina Alexandra. The Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, stands immediately above Tsar Nicholas. Royal Collection Trust / © Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2019 

A History of Royal Fashion

Want to take a peek into the wardrobes of the kings and queens of the past?

With exclusive access to the Royal Ceremonial Dress Collection, this free online course from Historic Royal Palaces & the University of Glasgow explores clothing from the Tudors to the Windsors.

Full-length, standing, facing the viewer, head turned half to the right, wearing a white dress with a diaphanous blue wrap, holding a posie of flowers in her right hand; beside a path in a parkland setting, with Kensington Palace in the distance, on the right.
Things to see Highlights

Discover the story of Princess Victoria, the young girl destined to be queen, in the rooms where she was born and raised at Kensington Palace.

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Kensington Palace

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Portrait of Queen Victoria on a green background
Things to see Highlights

Explore Queen Victoria’s private life behind her carefully-managed public image in this major new exhibition at Kensington Palace.

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Kensington Palace

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A large four poster bed covered in detailed period fabric, in a bedroom covered in dark green wall decor
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Explore the beautiful private rooms at Kensington Palace where Mary II once took her meals, relaxed and entertained.

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Kensington Palace

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A selection of the Royal Victoria bone china range displayed in lifestyle setting

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Historic Royal Palaces retail product - light green and white crockery and stationary, a table setting.

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The Wildflower crystal and pearl tiara sparkles with florets of crystals and an elaborate foliage design.

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