Henry VIII

‘Golden prince’ turned bloated bully. But was this infamous king all bad?

King Henry VIII circa 1520 National Portrait Gallery.

Hero or tyrant?

Henry VIII’s desperate desire for an heir drove him to acts of shocking cruelty and changed England’s religion. But he wasn’t always the obese wife-killer we think of today.  

Serial Spouse

The popular image of Henry VIII marrying and discarding six wives in equally quick succession is not true. Henry was first married, aged 17, to his brother’s widow, Katherine of Aragon, aged 23. They were married, apparently happily, for nearly 24 years.

Henry’s desperation for a male heir drove him to finally divorce Katherine and marry Anne Boleyn. When Anne failed to produce a son she was dispatched within three years. Wife number three, Jane Seymour, successfully delivered an heir, dying in the process.

Henry’s marriage to Anne of Cleves was annulled after six months. Marrying young Catherine Howard for love ended badly after just two years. Henry finally settled with Kateryn Parr, who survived him.

Did you know?

Despite Henry’s womanising reputation, we know of only three mistresses, among them Anne Boleyn’s sister Mary.

Inside the mind of a tyrant

Who was the real Henry VIII? Discover more about Henry VIII and 16th-century England from leading experts.

Henry’s Pleasure Palace

Henry wanted anyone who came to Hampton Court to be dazzled by his wealth and power. He made the palace even more magnificent after taking it from Cardinal Wolsey in 1529. The King hired Europe’s finest craftsmen and gardeners spent the equivalent of millions in today’s money extending and improving, creating magnificent apartments for his wives and his son. He rebuilt the Great Hall and extended the Kitchens to cater for his huge court. Henry also commissioned fabulous tapestries for his walls, woven with silk and gold thread that glittered in the candlelight.

Style Icon

Henry was once described as ‘the best-dressed sovereign in the world’. His outfits were more sumptuous versions of standard Tudor male costume, gown, doublet and hose. He ordered a total of 79 outfits during his reign to demonstrate his wealth and stature. Descriptions still survive: an outfit he ordered in 1537 was ‘crimson velvet embroidered all over with damask gold and pearls and stones’.

Henry’s favourite Tudor bonnet was garnished with eight great rubies set in gold, garnished with diamonds and pearls. Henry’s nightshirts were silk and he had lots of shoes and slippers, even boots for playing Tudor-style football and special hunting boots.

On important occasions of state, Henry wore his ceremonial robes, made for his coronation in 1509. This fabulous outfit included a show-stopping, floor-length train made of gold brocade line with ermine.

What did Henry do for us?

Five centuries later, Henry’s actions still have an impact on our lives as well as our imagination. While many of them were beneficial, some have left a darker legacy.

An English Church

Henry VIII created the Church of England. When the Pope refused to grant the divorce he wanted, Henry took England out of the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the English Church. Today, the monarch is still head of the Church of England.

Henry began to separate from Rome, speeded up by the controversial 1534 Act of Supremacy. Henry was also the first English king to commission a translation of the Bible, but he still practised a form of ‘watered-down Catholicism himself.

Money from monasteries

Henry and his minister Thomas Cromwell oversaw the dissolution of the monasteries from 1536-40. This changed the architectural and religious face of Britain. Hundreds of religious houses and monasteries were destroyed and their valuable contents confiscated.

The sale of monastic property created a land market in England, which enriched a rising new class of country gentlemen. Henry used Dissolution cash to found the Navy, building the warships which later defeated the Spanish Amada. He also invested in dockyards and strengthening coastal defences.

Henry’s legacy

Henry patronised innovation in both the arts and sciences. He promoted parliamentary government; he established efficient tax schemes and substantial new government bureaucracy. And he won respect for England in Europe.

Less admirable are his set of discriminatory laws that curtailed personal freedom and punished ‘difference’. Among them was the first law against witchcraft, passed in 1542, which had terrible consequences for (mainly) women who were persecuted over the next two centuries. The Buggery Act made homosexual activity punishable by death.

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