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William III and Mary II

William and Mary ruled jointly after the Glorious Revolution of 1688

William and Mary ruled jointly after the Glorious Revolution of 1688

A bloodless coup

Crowned jointly in 1689, Protestant monarchs William and Mary oversaw important moves towards parliamentary democracy. They also transformed Hampton Court and Kensington Palaces.


No male heirs

Mary was unable to bear children after an early miscarriage caused long term health problems

Queen Mary II, by Sir Peter Lely.  National Portrait Gallery.

The odd couple

Mary, daughter of James II, was sent away aged 15 to the Netherlands to marry William, Prince of Orange. She was a tall, striking brunette, William a short, asthmatic man. However, although theirs was a political match, genuine affection grew between them.

When Mary was invited to rule in 1688 she refused to do so without William by her side. They were the first and only couple to rule jointly, although Mary deferred to her husband except when he was abroad fighting.

Mary was the more popular of the two, light-hearted and gentle. William was seen as cold and unapproachable. He had little time for court life, and was happier on the battle field

Image: National Portrait Gallery

King James II, by Sir Godfrey Kneller, National Portrait Gallery

You will be still as good a daughter to a father that has always loved you so tenderly.

James II in 1688, doubting that his daughter, Mary, would plot against him

View of the King's Gallery, looking west. Paintings hang on the vivid red wall papered walls.

William and Mary's Kensington Palace

William and Mary’s decision to re-locate to Hampton Court from Whitehall didn’t please members of the government, who felt they were inaccessible and official business would be difficult to get done. So they also acquired the Earl of Nottingham’s house in Kensington, then west of London, to transform it from a mansion into a palace.

Within weeks the architect Sir Christopher Wren was set to transform the house into a suitable royal residence. The new palace was furnished with a chapel, accommodation for courtiers, kitchens, stables, barracks, but above all, a series of grand rooms or State Apartments where the King and Queen could hold audiences and ceremonies of state.

Death and Legacy

At the end of 1694, Queen Mary died of smallpox in her bedchamber at the palace and William was inconsolable.

In Feb 1702, while riding his favourite horse Sorrell from Hampton Court, the animal stumbled and William fell badly, breaking his collar bone.  Against advice, the King travelled to Kensington Palace. After a few days of deteriorating health, he died.

But the palace was built, and the Protestant kingdom secured, the twin legacies of William and Mary. Perhaps the finest moment of their reign was right at the beginning, when they signed the Bill of Rights after their Coronation in 1689.  This gave proper power to Parliament and began the process of creating parliamentary democracy that we know today in Britain. Never would a monarch be able to rule with power unchecked.  



The story of Kensington Palace

An elegant retreat for Britain's royal family

A history of royal weddings

From Queen Victoria to the modern royals

Queen Victoria

From pampered princess to elderly empress: wife, mother and queen


  • Things to see

The King's Staircase

Discover the intriguing and unexpected characters depicted on the grand entrance to the King's State Apartments.

  • Reopens 13 December 2023
  • Kensington Palace
  • Included in palace admission (members go free)
Learn more
  • Things to see

Untold Lives

A new exhibition at Kensington Palace, uncovering the forgotten stories of those who worked at the royal palaces over 300 years ago.

  • Opens 14 March 2024
  • In line with palace opening hours
  • Kensington Palace
  • Included in palace admission (members go free)
Learn more
  • Things to see

The King's State Apartments

Wander through the lavish rooms of the King's State Apartments, each one grander than the last, at Kensington Palace.

  • Reopens 13 December 2023
  • Kensington Palace
  • Included in palace admission (members go free)
Learn more

Shop online

Courtiers: The Secret History of Kensington Palace

Told through the eyes of a courtier, this fascinating book explores the ambitious and talented people who flocked to the Georgian court in search of power and prestige.