You are at the top of the page

Skip to content or footer

Start of main content

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn's secret wedding at Whitehall Palace

Date: 22 August 2016

Author: Anni Mantyniemi

In the early morning of 25 January 1533, Henry VIII married Anne Boleyn in a secret marriage service in Whitehall Palace. Henry was 41 and his bride 10 years younger. Only a handful of witnesses were present: a chaplain, two members from Henry’s privy chamber and one of Anne Boleyn’s attendants.

Secrecy was essential as Henry had not completed his divorce from his first wife and Anne was already pregnant. While Henry did have a license to marry from the Pope, this was dependent on a declaration stating his marriage to Katherine of Aragon was void. 

Tradition has it that the chaplain asked the King for the license reminding him that without proper permission everyone present faced excommunication. Henry cunningly assured the chaplain that he had the required permission but that the license was held elsewhere in the palace and fetching it would risk exposing the clandestine service.

The setting of the service had to be carefully chosen. While the ceremonial rooms of Whitehall Palace would have matched the importance of the occasion, they were far too public.

The wedding was consequently held in 'the highest chamber' of the palace, in the Holbein Gate, a three-story black and white gatehouse erected by Henry VIII in 1532.

Ground plan of Whitehall Palace based on Fisher's map of 1670.

Image: Plan of Whitehall Palace in 1670. The Holbein Gate is seen in the middle linking the two sides of the palace. © Historic Royal Palaces

The gatehouse formed an integral part of Henry’s new palace at Whitehall. Originally the riverside townhouse of Cardinal Wolsey, Whitehall Palace was built on two sides of a public thoroughfare leading towards Westminster. This road, which would eventually become modern-day Whitehall, was 'very foul and full of pits and sloughs'.

While Henry did have a license to marry from the Pope, this was dependent on a declaration stating his marriage to Katherine of Aragon was void. Constructed over this 'very perilous' road, the Holbein Gate connected the two sides of the palace. It allowed the King to walk from his apartments on the east to the leisure facilities on the western side of the palace, without having to mingle with his subjects in the public street.

'The Kings Gate',The Holbein Gate, Whitehall. Illustration from an early guidebook

Image: 'The Kings Gate', The Holbein Gate, Whitehall. Illustration from an early guidebook. © Historic Royal Palaces

The upper floors of the Holbein Gate contained rooms that Henry used as a library, study and in later life, a storage space for his wheelchairs. It was in one of these chambers that the secret wedding took place. After the lovers’ brief vows, the wedding party would have quickly left the gatehouse, dispersing into the palace before daybreak to avoid discovery. This proved successful as it was not until February that a court ambassador reported on Henry and Anne's marriage.

Throughout the history of the palace, the gatehouse continued to be used as a passageway linking the two sides of Whitehall as well as serving as courtiers’ apartments. The Holbein Gate survived the fire that destroyed Whitehall Palace in 1698.

However, only a few decades later the gate was identified as an impediment to traffic. In 1759 the gatehouse was demolished to allow for the widening of the road through Whitehall and the materials of the destroyed gate were incorporated into several buildings in Windsor Park.

Image: The Holbein Gate in the 18th century, before demolishment. The Banqueting House is seen on the left and Horse Guards on the right. Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016. © Historic Royal Palaces

While the magnificent structure no longer exists, you can still experience elements of the lost building on Whitehall. Methods of transport have changed but the level of traffic has remained largely the same. Looking down busy Whitehall, it is easy to understand Henry VIII’s desire for a gatehouse here. Wouldn’t you rather cross this road through a lavishly decorated private bridge?

However, nothing remains to suggest a private wedding service happened here on an early winter morning in 1533. Almost 500 years later, Henry and Anne's secret prevails.

Anni Mantyniemi
Curatorial Assistant

Listen to the podcast

Tracy Borman is joined by Dr Owen Emmerson and Palace Host James Peacock, to take on the mammoth task of disrupting the reputation of the second and most famous of the six Tudor Queens, Anne Boleyn.

They’ll explore this in the Great Hall of Hampton Court Palace, which remains a symbol of Anne’s triumph and her downfall.

Please be aware that this episode contains references to miscarriages, still births and infant mortality.

More episodes

More from our blog

The Weird and Wonderful Medicines of Henry VIII

12 January 2023

Henry VIII is one of England’s most famous monarchs, but lesser known are his numerous medical problems and the often-extraordinary remedies which he used to treat them.

The Extravagant Funeral of Henry VIII

16 February 2024

Curator of Historic Buildings Alden Gregory explores the elaborate hearse created to mark Henry VIII’s death, and how it links to the King’s use of temporary architecture during his life.

The Islamic World and Tudor England: ambassadors, rhubarb and sugar

05 May 2021

With over 3 million British Muslims currently celebrating the holy month of Ramadan, it’s a fitting time to explore how the Elizabethan and Jacobean court encountered the Islamic world. Misha Ewen is our new Curator of Inclusive History at Historic Royal Palaces and in her first blog she shares what she has been working on.

Share this on:

Twitter Facebook