The Georgians

Who were the four Georges – the kings who gave their name to an age?

Who were the four Georges – the kings who gave their name to an age?

In 1714, George Ludwig, Elector of Hanover was crowned as the new king of England. He established a line of monarchs who ruled for the next 116 years, overseeing the transformation of Britain into an imperial power and an industrial nation.

Each king had individual strengths and weaknesses as men, and as rulers, and all shared a dysfunctional Georgian family trait of loathing their fathers.

George I (r1714-27), shy and socially awkward, frequently absent in his beloved native Hanover.
George II (r1727-60), fond of uniforms and military exploits; loved routine.
George III (r1760-1820), agriculture-loving king was nicknamed ‘Farmer George’ but more cruelly labelled ‘mad’.
George IV (r1820-30, regent since 1811), an extravagant dandy with a king-sized appetite.

Images: Georges I, II, III and IV (details) Royal Collection Trust/© HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017.

Did you know?

We have the Georgians to thank for many aspects of ‘Britishness’, including the first Indian curry house (1810) and the national anthem!

A portrait of King George I.

The Hanoverians are here!

In 1714 Great Britain acquired a new king, Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover, who was transformed into King George I. A direct succession to the throne has continued since that day.

Britain’s previous monarch Queen Anne (1702-14) died without an heir. George did not have the closest blood ties to his distant Stuart cousins, but most importantly, he was Protestant.

Parliament had decreed that the monarch could only be Anglican, so 57 Catholic claimants were passed over to offer Georg Ludwig the British crown.

The King had divorced his German wife Sophia Dorothea for adultery in 1694, so he had no queen to rule alongside him. Instead he brought to England two extraordinary-looking women.

His curvaceous half-sister Sophia Charlotte was nicknamed ‘The Elephant’; while his bony mistress Melusine was tagged ‘The Maypole’.

Image: King George I, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

State Entry of George I and the Prince of Wales into London, 1714

George I, 'King Log'

George was not thrilled to be king, and among his subjects and courtiers the feeling was mutual. When he arrived in Britain, the cheers quickly turned to jeers and he was variously insulted as ‘corpulent oaf’, King Log and most bizarrely, a turnip!

The King’s frequent and prolonged trips home to Hanover didn’t go down well, either. At court, George angered bigoted members of English aristocracy by granting his loyal Turkish servants, Mehmet and Mustapha, the top jobs.

Image: State Entry of George I and the Prince of Wales into London, 1714, Royal Collection Trust / © HM Queen Elizabeth II 2017.

A portrait of King George I

‘In private life he would have been called an honest blockhead...’

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, writer and courtier, underwhelmed by King George I, © National Portrait Gallery, London

What type of ruler?

Reluctant, but willing to delegate. The King’s trust in his government allowed men like Robert Walpole, his first minister, to run the country very well.

George I’s reign saw the Jacobite rising of 1715 and the first stock market crash. Yet the King’s common sense and the good judgement of those around him helped the country weather these storms.

Did you know?

George I died from a stroke supposedly brought on by an excess of strawberries, on his way to Hanover.

A portrait of King George II

George II, brave but boorish

The second George was praised for his courage and vigour – he was the last British monarch to lead his troops into battle. Out of uniform, however, he was dull and self-important, and quick to anger. On occasion, he would tear off his wig and kick it around the room!

At heart, the King was probably deeply insecure. While still a young boy growing up in Hanover, his mother Sophia was locked away for committing adultery and he never saw her again.

As a man George found refuge in an obsession with facts and figures. The King would spend long hours describing obscure details of military uniforms and battles to long-suffering courtiers.

According to one account, George II even had his underwear numbered according to days of the week!

By contrast, his wife Queen Caroline (and his longest serving mistress Henrietta Howard) were among the most accomplished and intellectual women in Europe.

Image: King George II, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

An artwork of King George II

‘Little things … afflicted him more than great ones.’

The Earl of Chesterfield, observing George II, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

Portrait of Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach

The enlightened Queen Caroline

Caroline of Ansbach (r1727-37) was brought up at the sophisticated, highly-cultured courts of Berlin and Dresden.

As Queen Caroline, she invited writers, philosophers and scientists to her intellectual salons at Kensington Palace.

She also brought much-needed glamour and liveliness to court.

Although George II and Caroline were very different, theirs was a successful marriage, with a bond of trust between them.

Caroline acted as regent on several occasions while George was in Hanover. Caroline also played a pivotal role in court politics.

Apart from her dreadful relationship with her eldest son Frederick, she ensured that her family were nurtured and well educated.

Forward-thinking Queen Caroline also had all the royal children inoculated against smallpox.

Image: Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

Engraving of Queen Caroline wearing coronation robes. She holds a sceptre in her right hand, and a crown in her left

‘There he goes, that wretch, that villain! I wish the ground would open this moment and sink the monster to the lowest hole in hell.’

Queen Caroline, talking about her eldest son Frederick, father of George III

Georgian soap opera

The key to understanding the Georgian royal family is that eldest sons loathed their powerful fathers, and were loathed in return.

The relationship between George II and Caroline, and their eldest son Frederick was particularly bad. The King and Queen openly preferred their second son William Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland.

Did you know?

William Augustus, spoiled as a child, grew up to be a monstrously cruel military commander.

Engraving of Frederick, Prince of Wales, wearing ceremonial robes with the Garter Star

Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales (1707-51)

Frederick was the eldest son of George II and Queen Caroline, and father of the future George III. He was brought up in Hanover until the age of 21. Poor Fred was loathed by his parents, and his younger sisters and brothers, who were born in England. The feeling was mutual.

Frederick suspected his parents were making sneaky plans to give the throne to their second, favoured son, William Augustus.

The strained relationship came to a head in 1737 when Frederick’s wife, Princess Augusta, went into labour in the middle of the night at Hampton Court. The whole family had gathered to witness the birth.

To spite his parents, Frederick bundled the queen into a carriage to drive the 16 bumpy miles to London. His excuse? That St James’s Palace was the ‘traditional’ birthplace of English monarchs.

Image: Engraving of Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707-51).

Frederick at Kew

Frederick and Augusta were then ‘banished’ to Kew Palace, where Frederick built the Royal Kitchens around 1730 and the clever and talented Princess Augusta established the great garden of Kew.

Frederick died suddenly in 1751 aged 44 from a burst abscess in his chest, possibly cause by a blow from either a tennis or cricket ball.

Image: Thomas Bloodworth; Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales by Bartholomew Dandridge, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

A portrait of King George III

'Mad' King George III

Prince George became heir to the throne when his father Frederick died in 1751. George III was a cultured, well-intentioned king. Sadly, his worsening mental illness cast a huge shadow over his later life, and that of his family’s.

The King had many interests—agriculture, the arts and sciences, music and manufacturing.

However, he was also over-controlling, reluctant to let either his children or the countries under his rule develop independently. This caused problems with his sons and daughters and contributed to Britain losing the 13 North American colonies in 1783.

He and his wife Queen Charlotte had 15 children, including the future George IV.

Image: King George III, © National Portrait Gallery, London.

Front view of the King George III bust at Kew Palace

‘Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Briton.’

George III, the first truly British Hanoverian

George III (1738-1820), Queen Charlotte (1744-1818) and their Six Eldest Children

The King in decline

The King suffered the first bout of mental illness in 1788, and recovered, but suffered increasingly severe episodes in 1801 and 1804. 

His son, the future George IV, was installed as regent in 1811, by which time the King was almost blind, and demented.  

Gluttonous George IV

This extravagant monarch was spoiled and profligate—his coronation banquet alone cost £25,000 (when a family could survive on £30 a year). He however had impeccable taste in art and beautiful objects.

The fourth George had to wait a long time to come to power. Like a ‘golden apple’ he was attractive and promising at first, but by the time destiny finally called, he had grown old, lazy and rotten.

George IV's messy romantic life resulted in huge complications.  Under pressure to produce a legitimate heir, he wed his cousin Caroline of Brunswick. The couple soon parted, but not before the union had produced an heir, Princess Charlotte.

Sadly Charlotte died in 1817 after being delivered of a stillborn son, robbing the country of two generations of heirs at a stroke. Her father was so upset that he was ill in bed for weeks afterwards.

Image: King George IV, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2017.

Too large for life

In later life, vain George tried to disguise his expanding girth by pulling in his gut with a belt, and buttoning his excess flesh into tight fitting uniform jackets.

He also hid his several double chins with a ‘large, black neckcloth, and then swelling out his shoulders and the upper part of his person with tags and embroidery…’, topped off with lots of medals, and a wig!

Inevitably, George IV’s over-indulgence caused him health problems, made worse by his liking for drink. This caused gout, hardening of the arteries and eventually the tumours that probably killed him. 


Did you know?

Towards the end of his life, George IV was taking vast quantities of laudanum and opium to relieve the pain.

The body of King George IV lying in state

The end of the Georgians

George IV died on 26 June 1830.

Feeling the end was near, he asked that the curtains around his bed be drawn back so that he could see the approaching dawn.

To his doctor he whispered ‘My dear boy, so this is death’. 

And so the Georgian age ended.

Image: The body of King George IV lying in state, in a room draped in black, Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2017.

Two gentlemen and a group of visitors enjoy a wander through a garden on a sunny Summers day at Hillsborough Castle. The westerly facade of the castle is visible in the background.
Things to see

Enter the castle grounds through the wonderful 18th-century walled garden, which has been expertly restored using traditional methods.

Opening in spring 2019

Hillsborough Castle

Included in all admission tickets (members go free)

View of Stair Hall looking towards stairs that lead to the Royal Corridor. The walls are a soft blue and a large patterned rug covers most of the wooden floor. The walls are adorned with old political cartoons depicting the history of Irish and American politics. A gold-framed mirror hangs on the wall and a red-cushioned bench sits opposite.
Things to see

Explore the story of some key moments in the history of Ireland that shaped the role of Hillsborough Castle and Gardens.

Open Wednesday-Sunday for castle tours

Hillsborough Castle

Included in castle tours (members go free)

Ante Room with wooden floor, olive-green walls and dark green damask curtains. A marble bust stands in the corner, and two deep red chairs frame the doors leading to the State Entrance Hall.
Things to see

Discover the heart of the castle, which provides access to some of the most important spaces.

Open Wednesday-Sunday for castle tours

Hillsborough Castle

Included in castle tours (members go free)

Discover the history and design of Kensington Palace and learn about the royals who lived there in the official guidebook.

Official Kensington Palace guidebook

Discover the history and design of Kensington Palace and learn about the royals who lived there in the official guidebook.


This beautifully illustrated book tells the fascinating story of Kensington Palace from its origins to the present day.

The official illustrated history of Kensington Palace

This beautifully illustrated book tells the fascinating story of Kensington Palace from its origins to the present day.


Image is of a Clogau designed silver stacking ring inspired by The Great Pagoda at Kew.

Clogau Kew Pagoda silver and rose gold ring

Inspired by the Great Pagoda at Kew Gardens, this exquisite silver stacking ring features an intricate octagonal oriental design with accents of rare welsh gold.